- Foresights and futures studies depend on the adequacy of our knowledge of the present and the past.
- Big data evidence suggests that the English language area was not capitalist between 1800 and 2000.
- Popular social macro trend statements ought to be regularly scrutinised so as to reduce the risk that inadequate trend assumptions are projected into the future.
Citation: Roth S., Valentinov V., Augustinaitis A., Mkrtichyan A., and Kaivo-oja J. (2018) Was that capitalism? A future-oriented big data analysis of the English language area in the 19th and 20th century, Futures, online first, DOI: 10.1016/j.futures.2017.12.009.
Keywords: Social macro trends; capitalism; big data; Google Ngram Viewer; culturomics